Absenteeism definition pdf
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FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS’ ABSENTEEISM IN PRIMARY

absenteeism definition pdf

Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts. Absenteeism can lead to depression and also result in poor quality of education as a result of time lost while being away from school. It could also lead to moral degradation that leads to drug abuse, early pregnancies and unruly behavior. Absenteeism can be remedied by providing adequate co-curricular activities to students., Definition of the Concept of Absenteeism . There are various definitions of absenteeism in the literature. Clark (2008) defined absenteeism as "not attending school without a legitimate reason." Sinha (2007) argues that absenteeism should be defined as "being absent ….

Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

CHRONIC STUDENT ABSENTEEISM IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHER ABSENTEEISM IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NZAUI SUB COUNTY MAKUENI COUNTY 1.10 Definition of Terms absenteeism and duty desertion evidences this by among others the increasing disciplinary cases., Staff Attendance and Absenteeism Policy v1.0 Page 3 of 3 Absence from work without notice will be cause for disciplinary action, which may also include termination of the employee’s employment 7. Document Change Control Version Change Description Date Author 1.0 Policy Cycle Review Revision 13 December 2016 Corinne Green.

Balkıs, Arslan, Duru / The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors with absenteeism miss opportunities to learn the material that enables them to succeed later in school and; fall behind their classmates in academic achievement. In this notion, Definition of ABSENTEEISM: This occurs when an employee consistently is absent from work. Seldom does this individual have a valid reason. However, if valid reasons are given the

For the purposes of much of this document, absenteeism/sickness absence is defined as work non-attendance for which access to sick leave is sought ie. absence attributed to sickness. This definition is not dependent upon certification, and does not underestimate the significant Definition of absenteeism: Voluntary non attendance at work, without valid reason. Absenteeism means either habitual evasion of work, or willful absence as in a strike action.

This type of absenteeism calls for severe discipline - even to the extent of suspending the employee for say one week without pay, or a final written warning valid for 12 months. Obviously, proper disciplinary procedures must be followed. Absence after permission has been refused ‘Sandy Needham, chief executive of Bradford Chamber of Commerce, said absenteeism tended to be higher in the public sector.’ ‘The survey by the Small Firms Association also showed different levels of absenteeism between regions.’ ‘Teachers who exceed the agreed level of absenteeism should have a day's pay deducted for each absence.’

GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME WITHIN AN INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING . by . THABANG HAPPINESS MOGOBE . Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Absenteeism due to sickness, lack of food and work at home, the report also indicated, was one of the reason for poor performance. Boys fall behind in benchmark subjects of early education Possible reasons for absenteeism could be linked to the theory of adult learning, which explains physiological and psychological needs of an adult learner.

Absenteeism results in financial losses, because of the resultant reduction in productivity and the cost of sick leave benefits or others are paid as wages for no work. Absenteeism reduces the satisfaction level of the employee and makes him unsecured about his job in the organization. Absenteeism definition is - prolonged absence of an owner from his or her property.

absenteeism and school dropouts are mostly originated from family, school and student. Aim of the Study The aim of this study is to present the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts in Düzce Province and to develop some suggestions regarding the solution of these problems This type of absenteeism calls for severe discipline - even to the extent of suspending the employee for say one week without pay, or a final written warning valid for 12 months. Obviously, proper disciplinary procedures must be followed. Absence after permission has been refused

KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHER ABSENTEEISM IN PUBLIC

absenteeism definition pdf

GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM. 24.11.2019 · Absenteeism definition: Absenteeism is the fact or habit of frequently being away from work or school, usually... Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples, >At times, high ranking members sometimes paid a small percentage of their salary to preach in their place. >A factor in reformation and one of the church's most immoral issues. >Led to complaints about the ignorance of parish priests and became widespread in the 15th century..

The Causes and Costs of Absenteeism Investopedia

absenteeism definition pdf

Pluralism & Absenteeism by Caridza Ayala on Prezi. Define absenteeism. absenteeism synonyms, absenteeism pronunciation, absenteeism translation, English dictionary definition of absenteeism. n. 1. Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty. 2. The rate of occurrence of habitual absence from work or duty. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classroom Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation without good reason. Generally, absenteeism is unplanned absences. Absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer..

absenteeism definition pdf

  • Absenteeism and Turnover in the Workplace Definition
  • GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM
  • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Absenteeism

  • Definition of the Concept of Absenteeism . There are various definitions of absenteeism in the literature. Clark (2008) defined absenteeism as "not attending school without a legitimate reason." Sinha (2007) argues that absenteeism should be defined as "being absent … >At times, high ranking members sometimes paid a small percentage of their salary to preach in their place. >A factor in reformation and one of the church's most immoral issues. >Led to complaints about the ignorance of parish priests and became widespread in the 15th century.

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of absenteeism on corporate performance. Cadbury Nigeria Plc, Ikeja was used for the case study. The descriptive survey method of research was used and primary data were collected by the used of questionnaire. 24.11.2019 · Absenteeism definition: Absenteeism is the fact or habit of frequently being away from work or school, usually... Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples

    A majority of employers view absenteeism as costly and having a negative impact on productivity for their organization. Yet, only half indicate that absenteeism is a serious issue in their workplace. Just under half of employees also indicate that absence is a serious issue for their workplace. Definition of the Concept of Absenteeism . There are various definitions of absenteeism in the literature. Clark (2008) defined absenteeism as "not attending school without a legitimate reason." Sinha (2007) argues that absenteeism should be defined as "being absent …

    A STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN TIRUPUR DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU. *M.Karthikeyan, **Dr.P. Sivakami, Ph.D Research Scholar, Assistant Professor, This type of absenteeism calls for severe discipline - even to the extent of suspending the employee for say one week without pay, or a final written warning valid for 12 months. Obviously, proper disciplinary procedures must be followed. Absence after permission has been refused

    Absenteeism refers to the habitual non-presence of an employee at his or her job. Habitual non-presence extends beyond what is deemed to be within an acceptable realm of days away from the office for legitimate causes such as scheduled vacations, occasional illness, and family emergencies. Definition of absenteeism: Voluntary non attendance at work, without valid reason. Absenteeism means either habitual evasion of work, or willful absence as in a strike action.

    GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME WITHIN AN INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING . by . THABANG HAPPINESS MOGOBE . Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Definition of the Concept of Absenteeism . There are various definitions of absenteeism in the literature. Clark (2008) defined absenteeism as "not attending school without a legitimate reason." Sinha (2007) argues that absenteeism should be defined as "being absent …

    absenteeism in discrete ways but are likely to be interconnected in their impact on absenteeism. In Jamaica, Sections 23 and 24 of the Education Act (Jamaica, 1980) declared that children of the compulsory primary age (6–12 years) must get quality full-time education. Absenteeism is what happens when an employee begins to chronically miss work. Absenteeism is expensive to employers, bosses and co-workers and can cost repeat offenders their job. But while absenteeism is often perceived as an employee issue, newer research reveals it can also be a symptom of a much larger employer-based issue.

    absenteeism definition pdf

    Gauging the Issue of Absenteeism in the Workplace: Evidence from the Public Sector Kodjo Ezané Joseph Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé School of Humanities and Social Science B.P 150 Daloa, Republic of Cote d’Ivoire Abstract The thrust of this article is to scrutinize the causes and drawbacks of absenteeism on employee morale and A majority of employers view absenteeism as costly and having a negative impact on productivity for their organization. Yet, only half indicate that absenteeism is a serious issue in their workplace. Just under half of employees also indicate that absence is a serious issue for their workplace.

    Workplace Attendance & Absenteeism RACP

    absenteeism definition pdf

    Absenteeism Definition What is Absenteeism?. GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME WITHIN AN INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING . by . THABANG HAPPINESS MOGOBE . Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, While your employer’s definition may vary, in general absenteeism refers to a pattern of missing work. Absenteeism does not include excused absences, when an employer has granted an employee permission to miss work. Why Absenteeism Matters. Absenteeism is costly ….

    Absenteeism Labour Guide

    Effects of Absenteeism on Students Performance. ‘Sandy Needham, chief executive of Bradford Chamber of Commerce, said absenteeism tended to be higher in the public sector.’ ‘The survey by the Small Firms Association also showed different levels of absenteeism between regions.’ ‘Teachers who exceed the agreed level of absenteeism should have a day's pay deducted for each absence.’, Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. Its a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. There are various laws been enacted for safeguarding the interest of both.

    >At times, high ranking members sometimes paid a small percentage of their salary to preach in their place. >A factor in reformation and one of the church's most immoral issues. >Led to complaints about the ignorance of parish priests and became widespread in the 15th century. In designing national strategies to address teacher absenteeism and turnover, three issues need to be kept in mind. First, absenteeism and turnover often reflect reasonable judgements on the part of the teacher. T o alter levels of absenteeism and turnover, it is necessary to look to the underlying reasons for those behaviours.

    Definition of absenteeism: Voluntary non attendance at work, without valid reason. Absenteeism means either habitual evasion of work, or willful absence as in a strike action. GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME WITHIN AN INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING . by . THABANG HAPPINESS MOGOBE . Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

    Definition of ABSENTEEISM: This occurs when an employee consistently is absent from work. Seldom does this individual have a valid reason. However, if valid reasons are given the Presenteeism or working while sick can cause productivity loss, poor health, exhaustion and workplace epidemics. While the contrasting subject of absenteeism has historically received extensive attention in the management sciences, presenteeism has only recently been studied. In Singapore, the term may also refer to the practice where employees

    Regardless of the definition, chronic absenteeism is most preva-lent among students of color, students with disabilities, students enrolled in urban school districts, 14 and students in high-poverty schools regardless of jurisdiction. Not surprisingly, there is often Regardless of the definition, chronic absenteeism is most preva-lent among students of color, students with disabilities, students enrolled in urban school districts, 14 and students in high-poverty schools regardless of jurisdiction. Not surprisingly, there is often

    Absenteeism means employee absent from the job due to reason of sickness, social functions, death of relatives etc. absenteeism of employees is usual but when ratio increase that directly effect on organization performance and also increase the cost and workload in organization, Barkha Gupta (2013). If you’ve got no reason to skip school or work but you do it all the time anyway, you’ve go a bad case of absenteeism. When there's absenteeism, someone isn't showing up.

    absenteeism in discrete ways but are likely to be interconnected in their impact on absenteeism. In Jamaica, Sections 23 and 24 of the Education Act (Jamaica, 1980) declared that children of the compulsory primary age (6–12 years) must get quality full-time education. 06.02.2017 · Absenteeism refers to an employee's intentional or habitual absence from work. While employers expect workers to miss a certain number of workdays each year, excessive absences can equate to decreased productivity and can have a major effect on …

    For the purposes of much of this document, absenteeism/sickness absence is defined as work non-attendance for which access to sick leave is sought ie. absence attributed to sickness. This definition is not dependent upon certification, and does not underestimate the significant Absenteeism can be handled in a similar manner with the use of extrinsic rewards for perfect attendance each quarter, for example. Moreover, Caroline needs to ensure that the company has a disciplinary policy in place for unexcused absences, that employees are …

    Definition: Absenteeism. Absenteeism means being absent from work. Employees may take a leave or not report to work for a variety of reasons. Some of these may be uncontrollable factors like sickness, emergency, accidents etc. However, employees may also take leave when they are … CHRONIC STUDENT ABSENTEEISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL LEADERS BY KELLY KATHLEEN SCULLES DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in Educational Organization and Leadership in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2013 Urbana, Illinois

    Gauging the Issue of Absenteeism in the Workplace: Evidence from the Public Sector Kodjo Ezané Joseph Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé School of Humanities and Social Science B.P 150 Daloa, Republic of Cote d’Ivoire Abstract The thrust of this article is to scrutinize the causes and drawbacks of absenteeism on employee morale and costs of absenteeism and consequently do not have a true picture of the costs of absenteeism. It is recommended therefore that companies should include both direct and indirect costs in respect of absenteeism. The literary research is supported by the findings of …

    Absenteeism is what happens when an employee begins to chronically miss work. Absenteeism is expensive to employers, bosses and co-workers and can cost repeat offenders their job. But while absenteeism is often perceived as an employee issue, newer research reveals it can also be a symptom of a much larger employer-based issue. 24.11.2019 · Absenteeism definition: Absenteeism is the fact or habit of frequently being away from work or school, usually... Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples

    [Show full abstract] understanding what absenteeism is, how to determine whether or not an absenteeism problem exists in the company, and how to recognize and eliminate issues related to absenteeism. Specific causes of absenteeism will be discussed, along with respective solutions that some companies are using to deal with these issues. TA and Nature of Absenteeism •an average of 30% of teachers were absent during at least four visits of the research team •TA is higher at the end of the week (60% on Fridays) compared to the beginning of the week (20% on Mondays). •Absenteeism on Thursdays and especially Fridays) is becoming more or less ‘normal’ for the teachers.

    literature and the primary research, the study adopted a simple definition of absenteeism as a situation where a learner is not at school for an entire day. This definition does not distinguish between different categories of absenteeism, although a recommendation is Balkıs, Arslan, Duru / The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors with absenteeism miss opportunities to learn the material that enables them to succeed later in school and; fall behind their classmates in academic achievement. In this notion,

    In designing national strategies to address teacher absenteeism and turnover, three issues need to be kept in mind. First, absenteeism and turnover often reflect reasonable judgements on the part of the teacher. T o alter levels of absenteeism and turnover, it is necessary to look to the underlying reasons for those behaviours. Absenteeism can lead to depression and also result in poor quality of education as a result of time lost while being away from school. It could also lead to moral degradation that leads to drug abuse, early pregnancies and unruly behavior. Absenteeism can be remedied by providing adequate co-curricular activities to students.

    Presenteeism or working while sick can cause productivity loss, poor health, exhaustion and workplace epidemics. While the contrasting subject of absenteeism has historically received extensive attention in the management sciences, presenteeism has only recently been studied. In Singapore, the term may also refer to the practice where employees absenteeism and school dropouts are mostly originated from family, school and student. Aim of the Study The aim of this study is to present the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts in Düzce Province and to develop some suggestions regarding the solution of these problems

    A STUDY ON ABSENTEEISM OF EMPLOYEES IN SELECTED TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN TIRUPUR DISTRICT OF TAMILNADU. *M.Karthikeyan, **Dr.P. Sivakami, Ph.D Research Scholar, Assistant Professor, ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of absenteeism on corporate performance. Cadbury Nigeria Plc, Ikeja was used for the case study. The descriptive survey method of research was used and primary data were collected by the used of questionnaire.

    Presenteeism Wikipedia

    absenteeism definition pdf

    Absenteeism Definition Investopedia. CHRONIC STUDENT ABSENTEEISM: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL LEADERS BY KELLY KATHLEEN SCULLES DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in Educational Organization and Leadership in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2013 Urbana, Illinois, Define absenteeism. absenteeism synonyms, absenteeism pronunciation, absenteeism translation, English dictionary definition of absenteeism. n. 1. Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty. 2. The rate of occurrence of habitual absence from work or duty..

    Absenteeism definition of absenteeism by Medical dictionary

    absenteeism definition pdf

    Absenteeism Definition of Absenteeism by Merriam-Webster. 24.11.2019 · Absenteeism definition: Absenteeism is the fact or habit of frequently being away from work or school, usually... Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-communicable_disease Definition: Absenteeism. Absenteeism means being absent from work. Employees may take a leave or not report to work for a variety of reasons. Some of these may be uncontrollable factors like sickness, emergency, accidents etc. However, employees may also take leave when they are ….

    absenteeism definition pdf


    Gauging the Issue of Absenteeism in the Workplace: Evidence from the Public Sector Kodjo Ezané Joseph Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé School of Humanities and Social Science B.P 150 Daloa, Republic of Cote d’Ivoire Abstract The thrust of this article is to scrutinize the causes and drawbacks of absenteeism on employee morale and Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. Its a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. There are various laws been enacted for safeguarding the interest of both

    06.02.2017 · Absenteeism refers to an employee's intentional or habitual absence from work. While employers expect workers to miss a certain number of workdays each year, excessive absences can equate to decreased productivity and can have a major effect on … 24.11.2019 · Absenteeism definition: Absenteeism is the fact or habit of frequently being away from work or school, usually... Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples

    06.02.2017 · Absenteeism refers to an employee's intentional or habitual absence from work. While employers expect workers to miss a certain number of workdays each year, excessive absences can equate to decreased productivity and can have a major effect on … Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation without good reason. Generally, absenteeism is unplanned absences. Absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer.

    Absenteeism is what happens when an employee begins to chronically miss work. Absenteeism is expensive to employers, bosses and co-workers and can cost repeat offenders their job. But while absenteeism is often perceived as an employee issue, newer research reveals it can also be a symptom of a much larger employer-based issue. literature and the primary research, the study adopted a simple definition of absenteeism as a situation where a learner is not at school for an entire day. This definition does not distinguish between different categories of absenteeism, although a recommendation is

    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of absenteeism on corporate performance. Cadbury Nigeria Plc, Ikeja was used for the case study. The descriptive survey method of research was used and primary data were collected by the used of questionnaire. Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation without good reason. Generally, absenteeism is unplanned absences. Absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer.

    Definition of ABSENTEEISM: This occurs when an employee consistently is absent from work. Seldom does this individual have a valid reason. However, if valid reasons are given the Absenteeism due to sickness, lack of food and work at home, the report also indicated, was one of the reason for poor performance. Boys fall behind in benchmark subjects of early education Possible reasons for absenteeism could be linked to the theory of adult learning, which explains physiological and psychological needs of an adult learner.

    Definition of the Concept of Absenteeism . There are various definitions of absenteeism in the literature. Clark (2008) defined absenteeism as "not attending school without a legitimate reason." Sinha (2007) argues that absenteeism should be defined as "being absent … Staff Attendance and Absenteeism Policy v1.0 Page 3 of 3 Absence from work without notice will be cause for disciplinary action, which may also include termination of the employee’s employment 7. Document Change Control Version Change Description Date Author 1.0 Policy Cycle Review Revision 13 December 2016 Corinne Green

    Effects of Absenteeism on Individuals and Organizations Paul S. Goodman Robert S. Atkin J ~/ The purpose of this chapter is to examine the consequences of absenteeIsm. Instead of asking what causes absenteeism we want to identify the causal effects of absenteeISm; that IS, ~hat effect 06.02.2017 · Absenteeism refers to an employee's intentional or habitual absence from work. While employers expect workers to miss a certain number of workdays each year, excessive absences can equate to decreased productivity and can have a major effect on …

    >At times, high ranking members sometimes paid a small percentage of their salary to preach in their place. >A factor in reformation and one of the church's most immoral issues. >Led to complaints about the ignorance of parish priests and became widespread in the 15th century. Absenteeism due to sickness, lack of food and work at home, the report also indicated, was one of the reason for poor performance. Boys fall behind in benchmark subjects of early education Possible reasons for absenteeism could be linked to the theory of adult learning, which explains physiological and psychological needs of an adult learner.

    Staff Attendance and Absenteeism Policy v1.0 Page 3 of 3 Absence from work without notice will be cause for disciplinary action, which may also include termination of the employee’s employment 7. Document Change Control Version Change Description Date Author 1.0 Policy Cycle Review Revision 13 December 2016 Corinne Green GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME WITHIN AN INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING . by . THABANG HAPPINESS MOGOBE . Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

    absenteeism and school dropouts are mostly originated from family, school and student. Aim of the Study The aim of this study is to present the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts in Düzce Province and to develop some suggestions regarding the solution of these problems GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN ABSENTEEISM MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME WITHIN AN INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING . by . THABANG HAPPINESS MOGOBE . Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

    Absenteeism is what happens when an employee begins to chronically miss work. Absenteeism is expensive to employers, bosses and co-workers and can cost repeat offenders their job. But while absenteeism is often perceived as an employee issue, newer research reveals it can also be a symptom of a much larger employer-based issue. Definition of ABSENTEEISM: This occurs when an employee consistently is absent from work. Seldom does this individual have a valid reason. However, if valid reasons are given the

    but the effects of absenteeism on students performance is more prone to di scu . Indicator is defined as “A thing that indicates the position or level of something.’’(Oxford dictionary). Indicators of poor performance low GPA, poor class participation, poor coordination among students. Regular In designing national strategies to address teacher absenteeism and turnover, three issues need to be kept in mind. First, absenteeism and turnover often reflect reasonable judgements on the part of the teacher. T o alter levels of absenteeism and turnover, it is necessary to look to the underlying reasons for those behaviours.

    Definition of the Concept of Absenteeism . There are various definitions of absenteeism in the literature. Clark (2008) defined absenteeism as "not attending school without a legitimate reason." Sinha (2007) argues that absenteeism should be defined as "being absent … Define absenteeism. absenteeism synonyms, absenteeism pronunciation, absenteeism translation, English dictionary definition of absenteeism. n. 1. Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty. 2. The rate of occurrence of habitual absence from work or duty.

    Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. Its a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay. There are various laws been enacted for safeguarding the interest of both 14.10.2019 · The state of being absent, especially frequently or without good reason; the practice of an absentee. [First attested in the early 19th century.][1]· The practice of absenting oneself from the country or district where one's estate is situated.··^ “absenteeism” in Lesley Brown, editor-in-chief; William R. Trumble and Angus

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